2) If needed, book an appointment so that the microchip and rabies shot are done 21 days or more before your flight. You cat can enter the EU only after 21 days have passed.
Note that even if you're getting a microchip now, but your cat has already had a rabies shot, you have to get the shot again after the microchip is implanted. Same day is fine. The type of rabies shot you need is the one that lasts for 1 year.
3) Check the calendar and count 10 days prior to your flight. Within those 10 days, you must go back to the veterinarian, get a tapeworm shot, and have them sign forms from the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. For Spain, there is an English and Spanish form. These forms can be emailed to you, just contact your local CFIA; the vet's office may have their phone number. Make an appointment to have the vet sign first, then have an appointment to go to your local CFIA and have them endorse those forms. The fee for endorsement is $20 per pet. After the forms are signed, you have 10 days to enter Spain. The employee at CFIA recommended I get the forms signed around the 7-day mark, because if 10 days passes you have to get new forms.
4) Your pet is good for Spain for 4 months. After, if you wish to leave the country with him/her, you have to get a pet passport from a Spanish veterinarian.
It was reassuring to speak with a knowledgeable person at CFIA. Reading all of the websites on my own was confusing; it's always nice to get the information from a person who knows.